Principal Component Analysis
Given a collection of points in two, three, or higher dimensional space, a “best fitting” line can be defined as one that minimizes the average squared distance from a point to the line. The next best-fitting line can be similarly chosen from directions perpendicular to the first. Repeating this process yields an orthogonal basis in which different individual dimensions of the data are uncorrelated. These basis vectors are called principal components, and several related procedures principal component analysis (PCA).